“Management is nothing more than motivation other people”
Every time being has several needs and desires. But no individual can satisfy all his wants in isolation. Therefore, people work together to meet their mutual needs, which they cannot fulfill individually. Moreover, man is a social being as he likes to live together with other people. People satisfy their economic and social needs by working living together in organized groups and institution. As a result, there are several types of groups, e.g. a family, a school, a government, an army, a business firm and a cricket team, etc. Such formal groups can achieve their goals effectively only when the efforts of the people working in these groups are properly coordinated and controlled. The task of getting result through others by coordinating their efforts is known as management. Just as the mind coordinated and regulates all the activities of a person, management coordinates and regulates the activities of various members of an organization.
Different persons in different ways as described below use the word management:
As an activity: A distinct function performed in-group effort to achieve certain objectives.
As a process: A series of interrelated functions performed in all organizations.
As a discipline: A subject of study drawing upon work knowledge of other discipline.
As a group: A body of persons who perform the task of managing organization.
“Management is principally the task of planning, coordination, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective”
Functions of Management
Planning means deciding in advance what to do, when to do, where to do, how to do and who is to do. It implies determination of the objectives to be achieved and selecting the right course of action to achieve the desired objectives. A plan is a future course of action and therefore, planning is based on forecasts or scientific estimated of future events. Planning is an exercise in coordination because it involves choosing the right course of action out of various alternatives. It involves in taking advance decisions of action.
The process of planning consists of:
- Establishing objectives
- Making forecasts
- Formulating policies, procedures and rules
- Drawing programs schedules and budgets etc.
After deciding the objectives and ways or means of achieving them, the next step is to bring together manpower and material resources required for carrying out the plans. Organization structure (the network of authority-responsibility relationships) serves as a framework through which management coordinates individuals’ efforts. There can be several types of organization depending upon the requirements of the business.
The process of organization involves the following steps:
- Identifying the activities necessary to achieve the objectives
- Grouping the activities into manageable units
- Assigning duties or tasks to appropriate individuals
- Delegating necessary authority to individuals and fixing responsibility for results.
- Defining authority-responsibility relationships among individual
Staffing is function of meaning and also keeping manned, the positions created in the organization structure. It is concerned with human resources. Its aim is to fit individuals and jobs, i.e. right man or the right job. Staffing has become an important function due to increasing size of business, rapid advancements in technology and growing competition. It is a difficult function because the behavior of human beings is complicated.
Staffing consists of the following activities:
- Manpower planning, i.e. determining the number and quality of employees required in the organization
- Recruitment, selection and placement
- Training and development
- Appraisal, promotion, transfer and remuneration of employees
A manager may plan and organize but so tangible results can be achieved until the plan is implemented. This is done by directing, which literally means moving into action. Directing is that part of the management’s process, which actuates the organization members to work efficiently and effectively for the attainment of desired objectives. Directing is concerned with the execution of plans. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of management because it involves influencing, guiding and motivating the subordinates for the achievement of organizational objects. Supervision, motivating, leadership and communication are the sub-functions of directing.
Controlling is the process of measuring and comparing operating results with the plans and taking corrective action when results deviate from plans. “Fundamentally, control is any process that guides activity towards some pre-determined goal. The essence of control is in determining whether the activity is achieving the desired results.” Control is inseparable from planning.
The process of control consists of the following steps:
- Setting standard for the desired performance
- Measuring the actual performance
- Interpreting and comparing actual performance with the set standards
- Analyzing deviations to fix responsibility
- Taking corrective actions