Hunger and Population Explosion
According to the author, the real hunger means never having enough to eat. It also means a situation in which there is shortage of food and one is always wondering where the next meal is coming from or even if there will be a next meal.
China had ninety major famines in one century. Ten million died in the great famine of Bengal in 1969-70. There was the worst of the century in India in 1964-65. The Russian Famine in 1921-22 killed several million people.
Famines occur because of the three reasons; by the shortage of food when too many people are there to eat; by the failure of crops; or by the lack of rain.
The main reason for population increase is the different between the birth rate and the death rate as the number of people who are born in a year is greater than the number of people who die.
The number of births per 1,000 people is called the birth-rate whereas the number of deaths per 1,000 people is the death rate. The difference between the birth and death rates is the main cause of population increase in a country.
Public health measures are quite important in increasing population as better health facilities reduce death rate. And reduction in death rate is the main cause of increase in population.
In underdeveloped countries, high birth rate has a bad impact on economy and social development. The governments do not have sufficient funds to reduce the gap in living standards. There are poverty and illiteracy. Therefore, people experience great suffering.
In the most advanced countries, the birth rate has been reduced by various methods. They have introduced contraceptives and other medical facilities for family planning. They gave educated their public about limited family. Hence, their birth rate is not so high.
The underdeveloped countries are facing poverty and poor economic conditions. There are beggars in the cities and villages, lack of factories, poor roads and railways, lack of hospitals and schools, illiteracy and that its exports are in raw form.
The paradox is that the developed countries best able to support a rapidly growing population, have a low birth rate. Contrary to this, the underdeveloped countries least able to support smaller population have a very high birth rate.