The world cotton has been derived from the Arabic word “Qutn”. The cotton plant grows in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. The cotton fiber is of white color and, therefore, it is also known as silver fiber, the cotton fiber is used for making yarn and then, cloth is prepared from this yarn. Most of the cloth in the world is now prepared from the cotton fire which is superior to all the natural and synthetic fibers. Cotton is cultivated in 86 countries of the world where the total land area under cotton cultivation is 33154 thousand hectares. The per hectare cotton yield in the Australia continent is 3075 kilograms, which is the highest in the world. On the contrary, the per hectare cotton production in Pakistan is less than the average per hectare cotton production in the world.
The cultivation of the cotton plant began in the Sub-Continent in 1500 B.C. When Alexander the great came to the sub-continent with his army, he was accompanied by Greek historian Herodotus, who saw the cotton plant in this region. Till hill time, the Europeans had no information about the cotton plant. In one of his books Herodotus writes “In India, I saw a plant, on which no fruit grows. They only thing that grows on it is wool.”
According to the experts, Pakistan is the real home of cotton and its history of the Indus Valley. Today, cotton is cultivated all over the world.
Suitable Physical Factors
- Temperature: Although sun light is considered highly essential for the growth of the cotton plant, yet it flourishes well in the moderate climate. Clear sky for 180 to 220 days is useful for the cotton crop. Cotton is cultivated at the start of the summer season. At the time of cultivated, the ideal temperature is 21 to 32 degrees centigrade.
- Rainfall: The cotton crop needs an annual rainfall of 30 to 40 inches. Rain is harmful for the cotton crop at the time if it’s planting and picking.
- Soil: For the better production of cotton, fertile soil is required; it should have the particles of nitrogen, potassium and lime etc. For gaining the maximum per acre yield and for the effective drainage of water, the soil is made soft and fertile before the cultivation of the cotton cultivation.