Irrigation System of Pakistan
Pakistan is situated in that part of the world which experience severe weather in winter as well as in summer. Rains falls only in the months of July, August and September and that too, in a limited area. The average rainfall in Pakistan is less than the required amount. The average annual rainfall in Pakistan is less than twenty inches. Agriculture in the country, therefore, depends upon artificial means of irrigation. In fact, seventy per cent area under cultivation in Pakistan is dependent on irrigation and canals are the most important means of irrigation in the country. The remaining thirty per cent area is irrigated by means of tube wells, Persian wheels, Karez and ponds. Pakistan’s agricultural production is dependent on the development and expansion of the means of irrigation. The following means of irrigation have been adopted in Pakistan.
Wells (Persian wheels)
Dams in Pakistan
Constructed at Tarbela, it is the largest rock and earth filled dam in the world. At the back of it there is a lake fifty miles long, to meet the irrigation and electricity needs. Tarbela dam has the power generation capacity of 2.1 million kilo watts. Water is available in the dam for irrigating 9.3 million acres of land. Its construction was started in 1968 and completed in 1976. This dam has been built by stopping river Indus. Its height is 465 feet while its length is 9000 feet.
This dam has been built at Mangla by stopping river Jhelum. It is 454 feet high and 10300 feet long. At the back of it there is a lake forty miles long, for meeting electricity and irrigation needs. Its power generation capacity is 340000 kilo watts. Besides this, it is capable of irrigating 5.5 million acres of land. Mangla is the twelfth largest dam in the world and its construction was completed in 1967.